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Healthcare Utilization

Healthcare costing studies have expressive methodologic variability and need to be carefully interpreted. In the present document, most of the cost data were gathered from the Public Health System reimbursement tables from 2008 to 2019. During this period, adjustment for inflation was performed neither regularly nor homogeneously across the CVD groups or procedures, thus the crude values presented were not adjusted to actual inflation.

To minimize biases in reporting and interpreting cost data, a systematic approach was applied to all chapters. Overall costing studies were described in original units (Reais or US dollars in a specific year) and international dollars. International dollars were converted to PPP adjusted to 2019 US dollars (Int$ 2019) using the Campbell and Cochrane Economics Methods Group and the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Coordinating Centre cost converter ( A two-stage approach is applied in this method. First, it adjusts the original estimate of cost from the original price-year to a target price-year, using a GDP deflator index (GDPD values). Second, it converts the price-year adjusted cost estimate in the original currency to a target currency, using conversion rates based on PPP for GDP (PPP values).¹ For original economic studies, when the base year of the currency was not reported or could not be inferred from the manuscript (e.g. the last year of data collection), the recommendation was to assume the year before the publication of the paper.




1. Shemilt I, Thomas J, Morciano M. A Web-Based Tool for Adjusting Costs to a Specific Target Currency and Price Year. Evid. Policy. 2010;6(1):51-9. doi:10.1332/174426410X482999.

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